The Varyag-A Photo Album-Part 5 (Conclusion)

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The Blessed Virgin, the Apostles, Prophets, and Martyrs are capable of representation, but if it is impossible to represent Christ there is no need for these other icons. But the cause of the iconoclasts was closely linked with the problems of The King Abgar Receiving the another political struggle, that of the army and administration against the monks, their violence Mandylion, with the Saints and excessive influence upon the affairs of the Empire and great cities.

Thus cruel and senseless Paul of Thebes, Antony, destruction began: icons were burnt, or the painting on them burnt off with boiling tar, they were Basil and Ephrem, 10th century. Nor do Mount Sinai, Egypt. An icon of Christ represents Him in His human nature; those who reject such icons reduce the mystery of the Incarnation to a phantom. The icon teaches faith and morals and is a help to those who cannot read.

The Church seeks to enlist the sense of sight to make men praise God; the icon helps this state of mind and brings people up in the love of God. There is no prayer for the consecration of an icon, but no more is there for the consecration of a cross. Just as love for our nearest and dearest creates desire for their portraits, so it is natural for Christians to have representations of Christ and the saints. The prohibition of idols in the Old Testament had a temporary validity, but the Christian law is to last for ever. There is just one single historical statement made by the defender.

It concerned the tradition of the Fathers, who were undoubtedly speaking through the mouths of S. John Chrysostom and others supported the veneration of icons. The defence adduces no other references to the past, save citations of icons working wonders or specially honoured, in a series going back to the fifth century: the reason is that the iconoclasts demanded no historical review of the subject; both sides admitted that the icon had been accepted by the Church in extreme antiquity as a pious popular custom requiring no particular control.

Still, the simplest churches either did without representations and had nothing but a cross in the apse, or had only wall-paintings and curtains with figures of the Saviour and the Apostles worked upon them, but no icons. The position was evidently different by the time when S. John Damascene wrote his three discourses defending the holy icons against those who rejected them. He had to supplement the dogmatic with the historical, or practical, side of the question.

He quotes the evidence of the Fathers in favour of icons, Dionysius the Areopagite, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nysa, John Chrysostom, and ends up with cases of various specially honoured and wonder working icons in early times. It is fairly clear that it was in iconoclastic times that these specially honoured ancient icons perished. It is probable that some ancient icons of the Greek Orient have survived but are not yet known to us: of them we do know only one or two, such as the genuine Byzantine Virgin Hodegetria, carried off from Constantinople in A.

However, there are few of the truly Byzantine icons of the tenth to the fifteenth centuries of which we have knowledge. Such are in the Vatican, specifically, the icon of S. John Chrysostom on a twelfth- century reliquary of the cross from the Lateran treasure,25 and a few small icons of the fourteenth century in the Vatican Pinacotheca, in the Pisa Gallery an icon of the Archangel Michael; in Rome the famous Hodegetria in a chapel of S. Maria Maggiore and in Bologna in a church just outside the city another miraculous icon of The Virgin, late twelfth century.

The other ancient icons venerated and preserved in various churches and monasteries of Rome, Venice, Bologna, Florence, Naples, Messina, Palermo, do not belong to the true Byzantine style and are mostly Italo-Cretan work of the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries. It is by a rare chance that we have several Byzantine icons preserved at Novgorod: an icon of Ss. Peter and Paul in the cathedral of S.

Sophia; two of the Annunciation, one in the monastery of S. Anthony the Roman, one in the church of Ss. Boris and Gleb; and one of S. George in the The Annunciation, monastery of S. But even in Russia the greater number of early icons are Greek The Archangel Gabriel, and not truly Byzantine: they go back to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and were painted 18th to 19th century. There are some actual Byzantine icons in the State Russian Museum and Church of the Virgin they may serve as a foundation for the study of the Byzantine style.

Gregory Thaumaturgus eleventh century inscribed with his name with its severe style it is Church of Saint Clement , a perfect substitute for the now whitewashed mosaic representations of bishops in the cathedral Macedonia. Sophia at Constantinople. The faultless plastic drawing of the figure can scarcely be classed as painting, in view of the paleness of the colours and the slight indication of relief, but the perfect mastery with which the folds of the drapery are rendered by the above-described gradation or modelling with shadows, brighter planes, and highlights of varying tints of buff likewise recalls the mosaics of the Capella Palatina at Palermo.

Unlike the mosaics, we find bright colour upon the sunburnt cheeks and lively flesh colour although the face is pale. This icon is clearly a real portrait, and in type remarkably like the icons of S. Gregory in S. Equally precious is an icon of the Transfiguration which was presented to the Academy of Arts by P. Like most of the Greek or other rare specimens of his collection, he had brought it from Mount Athos. The icon, about 10 inches 25 cm. They had all been painted on bright red ground, a curious peculiarity of many early icons until and including the fourteenth century.

This icon, by its style, cannot be later than the tenth or possibly the beginning of the eleventh century: it is completely in the spirit of Byzantine art as restored after the iconoclastic movement. Its style is just like that of the Paris manuscripts of Gregory the Great,29 only a certain sentiment in the type, peculiar to icon-painting, distinguishes it from the work in manuscripts.

But the most remarkable of all examples of Byzantine icon-painting was discovered by myself at Ochrida in the church of S. Clement in The icons, about 40 x 28 inches x 70 cm , are evidently part of the splendid old iconostas of the thirteenth or fourteenth century moved from the cathedral when it was turned into a mosque.

The other icons of the Virgin proved to be Serbian copies of Greco-Italian types of the Virgin and Child and belong only to the fourteenth century. We must pass over various small Byzantine icons mostly from Mount Athos. The dimensions of the bigger icons that are really Byzantine excluding those of the fifteenth century which were produced under quite different conditions may give us some idea of the part played by icons in Byzantine art. In Byzantium the iconostas generally reached almost across the central nave, but as it was customary to have not less than eight or ten intercolumniations, the fixed icons were lower and much narrower than in Russia.

It is more difficult to make out the sizes of devotional or house The Annunciation, The Virgin, icons: icons of the Virgin, usual in this class, do not surpass 12 inches 30 cm ; later they reach 24 18th to 19th century. It is remarkable that in all early icons of Greek work, even the largest, the surface for the Church of the Peribleptos of painting is sunk; either it is actually chiselled out, or else in the case of large icons a kind of frame Ohrid now Church of St is applied.

Italo-Cretan icons and south Italian icons of a similar style have nothing of the kind. Clement , Macedonia. Sunken fields are found in the earlier Russian icons, especially these from Novgorod. In the enumeration of Latin errors, which forms part of the epistle of Michael Cerularius A.

This development was of course closely connected with the abundance of wood supplied by the boundless forests of northern Russia- in the east it was difficult to get hold of a panel for a big fixed icon that would not warp or split. This is an important point, as the term often occurs in the inventories of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Our Lady with Child, settled and the types of devotional icons more or less fixed.

This fixing of dimensions resulted 6th century. Encaustic on plaster in a transformation of the nature of the craft: every pupil or under-workman could now copy a on panel, From this we can easily see why the drawing in the Novgorod school simplifies the Byzantine scheme to such a degree, whereas in the Moscow school, such Royal Doors, rude simplification is less prevalent: of course the church iconostases were of the first middle of the 16th century.

Upon the occasion of a festival it was usual to place the 15th to 16th century. But in fifteenth century Russia, and soon after in the Greek countries, there arose a new type of iconostas with five or six tiers. This seems to be the result of the introduction of the triple icon called Deisus. John the Baptist on his left: it might consist of whole figures, half-lengths, or merely heads. When it became a triple icon, it was set above the Festivals where the Greeks and Latins had of old put the Crucifixion flanked sometimes by Mary and S. John the Divine.

When the three icons of the Deesis were put up high, they were flanked on each side by figures of Archangels, Apostles, and Fathers. Next made was the crowning tier of the Prophets on each side of the Virgin and Child. Much later, added above this, was the tier of the Patriarchs. Both these tiers might have the figures either whole or half length. They might even be fixed to the chancel arch, so as entirely to separate the apse from the nave. Above all was sometimes a row of Cherubim. The first mention of these high iconostases is in The iconostas of the Uspenski Cathedral at Moscow provides an excellent example.

Nicholas, and a Holy Trinity round the corner. To the south of the Royal Art, Kiev. Doors is a fixed icon of Our Lord, also brought from Novgorod, and next it the icon of the Dormition, the dedication feast of the cathedral; behind the pillar is the door into the Diaconicon and another Martyrs, 6th to 7th century. The next tier in this Encaustic on plaster on panel, case is given to the Deesis in full form, Christ flanked by the Virgin Mary and S. John the Baptist, Peter, S. Paul behind the right pillars and then other Museum of Western and Apostles.

The smaller iconostas of the chapel of the Nativity of Our Lady in S. Sophia at Novgorod are all of the sixteenth century. The Royal Doors are better examples, having upon their posts the Virgin and Christ, holy Bishops below, Deacons above, and the double Eucharist in the spandrels. The upper tiers answer roughly to the Moscow example, but the Deesis has holy Bishops as well as Apostles, and the top tier has only four Patriarchs.

It would be a mistake to suppose that all these erections of icons, and iconostases, these tiers of icons, fixed icons, and groups of icons apparent throughout ancient Russian churches are merely decorative furnishing. On the contrary, as opposed to the true wall-paintings, all these tiers and groups received a definite spiritual meaning.

With the development of the tall iconostas, Russian icon-painting came to devote special attention to the Royal Doors in the centre and to the side doors in the screen which lead to the Credence and the Sacristy prothesis and diaconicon : these doors are either decorated with wood-carving or covered with icons. The Royal Doors the name goes back to Byzantine usage33 had, at first, only room upon The Archangel Michael, their panels for the Four Evangelists, but when they grew higher the Annunciation was added above, end of the 11th century to the Gabriel on one side, and the B.

From the tenth to the fourteenth centuries in both beginning of the 12th century. Greece and Russia this was represented upon two pillars in the sanctuary rising above the iconostas. From the Church of Saints Next, for the sake of decorative effect, they began to hang the Royal Doors upon special door-posts Cyrius and Juliette, Lagourka, to support them and to set a canopy or tabernacle over them after the fashion of a kiot34 or icon- Georgia.

It became the custom to paint upon the three surfaces of the posts series of holy Bishops and National Museum of History Deacons, beginning with Stephen, the first Deacon, complete with their censers and incense boxes. More varied and interesting were the subjects painted upon the They were the 12th century.

The State From the sixteenth century we observe a multiplication of icons in the churches, in domestic Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. The Apostle Phillip and doors. The icons of the Demetrius, end of the 11th Moscow Tsars fall into this category and still kept in special cupboards along the walls of the century to the beginning of the Archangel Cathedral in the Kremlin at Moscow, the burial place of the old Tsars.

Specially honoured 12th century. The popularity of particular subjects was influenced by wood, 41 x 50 cm. The State their use on different occasions of life, icons of the Christ and of The Virgin for the nuptial blessing, Hermitage Museum, Christ above gates, and the Deesis above the entrance of the older churches. The multiplication of St.

Wealthier people would have a separate room for the oratory and in it the icons would be arranged in regular tiers with shelves for lamps to burn before them. Mounting and external adornment of icons which, side by side with excellence of painting, was the subject of pious zeal on the part of donors. Even the Greeks, as early as the tenth century, yielding to the general taste for ornamental backgrounds, began adorning the whole field of the icons with stamped sheets of silver and the raised borders or true frames with similar strips of silver, which were sometimes set with jewels.

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For example, the golden diadem discovered at Kiev38 where it had been buried for safety at the time of the Mongol invasion, with its tiny enamel representation of the Deesis, and figures of Archangels and Apostles, is similar to the halo from a large icon but has the shape of a diadem. As long ago as the fourteenth century, under Greek influence, the Russians began to cover even the figures with plates of silver showing in more or less relief the outlines and folds of the clothes and vestments.

The parts of the figures left unclothed, faces, hands, and the like, all the flesh Our Lady Hodegetria, tints, show through holes in the riza. This is how Paul of Aleppo describes the look of the icons in the 10th to 17th century. The greater parts of the icons are Greek. Paul did not distinguish between true Greek icons and copies going back to Greek originals. Art Museum of Georgia, Naturally even more decoration was applied to the devotional icon in private hands: this came Tbilisi, Georgia.

Nicetas, the vanquisher of evil spirits; Saint Luke the Evangelist, against fiery conflagration, the figure of Elias the Prophet or his Ascent in a Fiery Chariot or else of The S. Panteleimon; from sudden death, S. The result was a general reduction of The Synaxarium of the Three ancient objects in churches, especially of icons valuable for their antiquity or for their mountings. Hierarchs, Pearls taken off icons are or were shown by the bushel in rich monasteries.

Museum of History destruction set in. An icon requires careful preservation; it must have a more or less steady of Moscow, Moscow. The thin layer of gesso that carries the paint swells up, cracks, and scales off, so that many places are left Saint Luke the Evangelist bare. Dust does significant damage, especially if an icon is horizontal, or if a dusty icon gets Painting the Icon of the Virgin, alternately damp and dry.

Of course, it must be granted that this looking The State Tretyakov Gallery, after icons and frequent cataloguing of them led to a general repainting in order to restore them Moscow. This province is not concerned with nature, the ultimate model of the secular painter, nor with perspective or anatomy.

The mere repetition of the same forms and types confers a certain sanctity upon icon- painting and gives all that it performs the character of a conscious service to the transcendental. All these attributes of icon-painting are derived from the history of Byzantine art; they show the progress of this art in a series of glorious works in mosaic, illumination, ornamented walls of marvellous beauty, decorative objects, fine carving in ivory and in gold.

In all these branches it reached high perfection. Is Russian icon-painting to be regarded as a repetition of Byzantine craftsmanship, or has it its own history, its own departures from the Byzantine original, its own national features? This is the problem before us when we try to characterize the Russian icon. However, these may be only variations of one style, and for this reason, before proceeding to a historical grouping, we must consider the characteristics of the drawing from the point of view of general art history Drawing is linked closely to composition, as the latter depends most directly upon drawing.

But as Russian icon-painting took over the composition ready-made from the Greek, people are wrongly given to think that drawing in Russian icon-painting remained Greek all the while, as if right up to the end of the sixteenth century it was impossible to speak of Russian drawing. Exact comparison will prove that even the mechanical tracings of a head and shoulders figure of a saint led to confusion and changes of the Greek drawing. Only now that we have gained a real knowledge of Byzantine iconography42 are we in a position to state that it is, in spite of all its faults of drawing and expression, not only complete but final, as all attempts on the part of painters to make new groupings have only led to want Andreas Pavias, Christ of clearness and characterisation of the subjects.

Pantocrator, end of the 15th These compositions were developed over, and served their purpose for, centuries. Only in the century. Christ Pantocrator, No one ever thought of developing new religious subjects; they all Egg tempera on plaster on painted after the icon fashion, learning to draw from the icon models and within the limits of icon- wood, x 79 cm. This made it possible for even poor craftsmen to draw and paint icons with elaborate The State Russian Museum, detail and with many figures.

None the less, they spoilt the figures to the last degree especially St. The buildings were at first painted in accordance with the Greek custom, two porticoes joined by a wall or by a curtain making a conventional, pseudo-classical scene for the action to take place. More permanent was the vogue of the background in the shape of two mountains, one to the right supposed to be towards the east and illuminated by the rosy light of the sunset, the other to the west overspread with the on-coming darkness expressed by the complementary lilac or bluish reflexion.

Usually these two mountains make up the desert as the Greeks understood it; they placed there hermits, prophets, and holy men and made it the scene of the deaths of martyrs. All these points serve to mark the various manners distinguished by the modern icon-painters. Be this as it may, the main thing is the actual drawing and the essence of this is the power to make the sketch or outline of the figure and face. Moreover, from the sixteenth century on, the free painting which executed icons on wood and schemes of wall decoration, gave way to a certain extent to mechanical reproduction by means of tracings from icons pierced, with soot which transferred the main lines of the drawing to the damp gesso.

The pattern here illustrated is the work of Basil Kondakov of Usolye, who collected many others. This represents the composition called the New Testament Trinity and also Paternity and bears both titles Characteristically in tracing it has been reversed, God the Father should have Christ on his right, and the cross is clearly the wrong way round. It was probably traced from the centre of a great composition of the Creed or the Last Judgement. These patterns often have indications of the colours to be used on different parts.

The design is originally western, and the representation of the dove is most peculiar It is possible that that such a mechanical copy gave no scope for change, and of course in these reproductions the Greek design preserves its general character. But the human hand has to go over the whole of the mechanical copy and in course of time the copy or reproduction suffers change. Evidently, the earliest Russian icon-painting worked in two manners; one a severe, definite, and plastic manner close to Byzantine Constantinopolitan art in its refined style of the tenth to twelfth centuries, and Angelos, Christ Pantocrator another broad and simple with straight vertical folds of the drapery and coarse patches of red Enthroned, end of the 15th upon the pale cheeks of the faces.

By the end of the fourteenth century the Russian icon had reached its full stature and, at the Teutonic Cemetery, Vatican. The Byzantine drawing had by now fallen to pieces and with its exaggerated refinements it had become unintelligible to the craftsmen and beyond their execution. Let us take the half-length of S. Further, the hand, painted as in the Greek icons in the act of blessing, the sturdy broad-shouldered body, the youthful head with its sharp oval, and the line round the eyes, everything is Greek.

The body has delicately sloped shoulders, unlike the ordinary Byzantine type; the face keeps the characteristic Attic oval, but is bent downwards in deep thought. Unlike the Byzantine, the drapery is all soft with wide folds. When we come to these groups in their historical order their varieties will appear of themselves. Now we only wish to show that in judging of the drawing in icons we must fix our attention not on what it has in common with the Byzantine, but on the historical distinctions and changes.

Artistic drawing is not only the expression of its epoch and the influences dominant therein, but also of its nation and place. The history of art which puts before us in historical development Italian, French, and German drawing shows us that drawing must be national and likewise individual; it is The Crucifixion, 12th century. When we come to the icon with the knowledge that there is and Ethnography of Svaneti, a mechanical copy underlying every considerable drawing, we might expect to have to give up all Mestia, Georgia.

The Russian icon-painter set himself the task, before everything else, of precisely imitating his Greek model; giving no play either to his pupil or to himself, he tried to make an exact copy. From the sixteenth century on we hear how the icon-painters sought this model; it made them buy old icons, it forbade any venture to paint even small details in their own fashion instead of the Greek — for instance the contour of the eyes — they were afraid to begin any innovation lest it should be a ground of accusation against them.

Yet, all the while, the icon was getting a national tinge, and often it was the head and face which showed it first, next the figure, and only towards the end in a period of decline is there any change in the clothing, the ancient conventional raiment being modified by new influences. The changes of course affect the less prominent details: for instance, while the curly hair of S. George survives as a characteristic point of the saint, the slight wave in that of S. Nicholas may be gradually lost. If then we are asked the source and cause of such a change in the characteristic Greek types, we can point, first of all, to the series of miraculous and specially revered icons.

You might think that these were the ones which would be most exactly copied, but as a matter of fact it is in these in which we find most frequently and most clearly a change in type. It is evident that, in accordance with a custom which early gained acceptance, patrons were almost always inclined to choose for their own devotion some miraculous icon that they specially revered and knew very well. Such icons would be copied more often than others, and more often than in the case of others would a copy serve as a model for further copying, and, as a result, the process of modification was especially swift.

The human hand, as it follows the stencil mechanically traced from the original, tends to modify its lines after its national character and even after a definite manner of icon-painting which suggested to the painter definite features of the iconic type. If we take the type of S. Nicholas Thaumaturgus, whose innumerable Russian icons show evident signs of Greek tradition, this tradition can be exemplified and confirmed by a whole series of early Byzantine pictures in wall mosaic Daphni, S. Luke in Phocis, S. The points that distinguish the type of S. Nicholas make him sturdy of build, with sparse flesh, grey but still virile.

His head is rather square, his face a broad oval, short hair with a wave in it, a small round beard, a high open forehead, a severe but restful expression. Further, in the older icons the folds are stricter and most correct, in later ones they get confused and tightened. Russian icon-painting, however, passed through certain periods when its schools had few models to follow, or had no other icon craftsmanship but that of bands of journeymen either Saint Nicholas, beginning of wandering on their own account or specially invited to execute the wall-painting of a church, the 16th century.

Icon Museum, and, that done, to make the iconostas. How, in such times, did the local craftsmen with no Recklinghausen, Germany. Athanasius and Cyril of Alexandria, who have festivals on the same day 18 Jan. This preservation of the ancient attitude of blessing in the Russian Church is very important historically, the testimony of icons being a support to the schismatics who refused to accept this among other innovations of the Patriarch Nicon The spirituality and intelligence shown in the faces of two of the greatest teachers of the Church have given way to a gloomy and parched asceticism.

We cannot, however, deny a certain adaptation of the faces to the Russian type and a restrained simplicity about the whole in place of the Greek affectation. We find this exemplified in the characteristic pattern of the field upon which the two figures stand: sprays, rods, and dots disposed in a regular order form a carpet pattern.

Specifically, this kind of pattern occurs on a whole series of particularly well-painted icons in the State Russian Museum. They were copied from Italian icons which followed the religious pictures of the Italian masters of the quattrocento. The scene represented is the flight of the Prophet into the desert in accordance with the Word of the Lord 1 Kings xvii , and his being fed by ravens at the brook Cherith. The painter has combined in one all the places in the Bible that tell of how Elijah took refuge in the desert from the wicked deeds and persecutions of Ahab and Jezebel, and represents him in a moment of pain and grief when he has turned round at a slight noise and sees the raven bringing him a small loaf.

Between two lofty rocks in the mountains, at the mouth of a deep cave, the weary prophet has sits in deep dejection leaning his head on his Saint George Slaying the hand. Egg tempera on wood, Both the rocks and the clothes of the prophet are brightly coloured in shades of brown and x 79 cm.

The pale blue lights on the edges of the folds of the chiton bring out the Lviv region. National Art relief of the figure. Above the chiton is thrown a sheepskin fastened round the throat. Extremely Museum of Ukraine, Kiev. The general type can only be compared with the well-known type of S. John the Baptist in Greco-Russian icon-painting and perhaps also with S. The comparison of a Greek original with its later copies will show much about the Russian style; in particular, will make clear to us the simplification of the original which comes about when a journeyman undertakes cheap work.

Such is the case in the scheme of rocks and ledges, in the pose of the figure and the drawing of chiton and sheepskin, in the roughness of the face with the head scarcely indicated. But there is one new and characteristic point: the right arm is pressed closely to the breast. Vanished is the prophet, the great eremite, his moments of grief and despair, vanished too is the special mark of his deep faith and with it the artistic beauty of the icon.

Colouring and Pigments in Russian Icon-painting Just as the philological way of studying remnants of antiquity has given way to the archaeological, so now in the history of painting the time has come for a full study, beginning with the theme and the drawing and ending up with the colours. Now that the technique of reproduction in colours has eliminated the hand and become entirely photographic and mechanical, the time has come for science can take into account the historical succession of colouring and pigments and accordingly to make, in icon-painting, a satisfactory distinction between different schools.

In both cases this method fails to furnish sufficient data, and in important cases connoisseurs study the drawing of hands and fingers, ears and such like to find proofs of their ascription of a painting or drawing to a particular artist. We know further that the progress of this form of painting was a striving for depth and richness of colouring as well as in an airy softness of tint in order to gain a life-like impression, its warmth of flesh tints, and the attractive force of the eyes with their look either penetrating or reflective.

The contrasted shadows on the cheeks, brow, and nose, and the bright surfaces on the folds of Saint George Double-sided icon , the draperies gave wax-painting opportunity for rendering a close observation of nature. First, a Kiev School, end of the 11th dark tone was laid on, next the shadows put in with a contrasting light blue and the two patches century to the beginning of the with their different colours and values were softened by the hot iron, pressed out, to some extent 12th century.

Egg tempera on mixed, and this very softening process did away with the sharp edges of the first laying on and lime wood, x cm. The laws of icon-painting demand the same effects, The State Tretyakov Gallery, but with the egg or tempera technique they can only be attained in a solid fashion by a long Moscow. It dealt with, in the first chapter, — the mixture of colours for the production of flesh tints, that is, the okhrenie, the colour comprised of white lead, vermilion cinnabar , red ochre, black, etc.

In this complicated recipe, with its directions as to what should be mixed with which and what must be added later, the part which interests us most is the first coat, which is made of white lead burnt until it gives a yellow or greenish prasinum colour This is precisely the darkish, greenish-olive coat which, both in miniatures and in icon- painting of the Greco-Italian school, forms the first coat and underlies the flesh tint made of a mixture of white lead and vermilion, burnt red ochre, and red lead.

The green shows at the edges round the oval of the face and along the nose and makes the shadow; it is for the tenth to thirteenth centuries the mark of Byzantinism in painting. Flesh colour, when lighted, is made of white lead and red ochre; the region of the eyes beginning with the dark sinking of the orbit is done in black mixed with ochre or umber with red ochre. The icon-painters distinguish, in various styles, sankir of various shades and compositions, but agree in denoting by it a dark tint serving as the ground colour for flesh, yet they do not know the origin and meaning of the word.

Frequent use of these distinguishes the severe Greek manner of the old schools and their number decreases century by century from the fourteenth to the seventeenth, though they continue to survive right through the course of Russian icon-painting as an accepted convention. Even in the seventeenth century, in the big independent icons, they The Prophet Elias in the cover the prescribed places on the muscles about the eye and upon the forehead with rows of fine Desert, 14th century.

A great many such little wood, The State Hermitage Museum, We have already seen that, in contradiction to the encaustic painting with its rich deep tones52, St. The pale style has its coat of pale ochre, whereas the rich colouring has red ochre. The Greco-Italian icon-painting in the latter half of the fourteenth century and in the fifteenth had under the hands of Paolo and Lorenzo Veneziano and Catarino worked out a warm iconic colouring which gave rise later to the colouring of the great Giorgione.

It was not merely the natural surroundings of Venice, the deep, rich evening colouring of the Venetian lagoons, but also the decorative beauty of Greco-Oriental icons adopted by Greco-Italian icon-painting that, as we shall see below, provided the historical foundation for Venetian colouring. We know something of this practice of using brown colours for drapery with bluish reflexes as far back as the early Christian mosaics in Cyprus, the church of S. Even the Italian fresco of the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries knows the use of greenish reflexes on reddish draperies, still earlier in S.

As a matter of fact it is most important to realize that I, for instance, know of only one single Russian icon which is an absolute copy of a Greek original. This is the icon of the Nativity of Our Lord in the church at Pskov; it is exactly like a Greek icon in the State Russian Museum; the only difference is in the inscriptions. Naturally such copies if they did exist were only single examples, all other icons were executed in various painting-shops by means of tracings. For an exact copy of an ancient icon you must go to a podstarinshchik or, better, not to an icon-painter at all but to an ordinary artist.

Between the fourteenth to seventeenth centuries we find no such adoption of Greek or rather The Archangel Gabriel, Byzantine colouring as we do in the twelfth and thirteenth; nor do they quite adopt the colouring Egg tempera on of the Italo-Cretan icons Russian icon are easily distinguished. The master or pupil makes up plaster on canvas mounted on his colours himself. First he mixes raw yolk of egg with thin kvas rye beer or water, and drops wood, x cm.

To define these colours, which have in the West passed into history, would be difficult and it is not worth while, it would be easier to give a coloured plate with a reproduction of them all. None the less, some general account of them may be given. We can see clearly the dependence of Russian icon-painting upon the Venetian colours, which were exported all over the east.

Very noticeable is the predominance of red in various tones, also important it is which of the different reds is used and how it is applied. It is from the north that the Moscow school derived its pink hills and buildings and the custom of brightening an icon with red patches of raiment When we remember that the words miniator, miniatura come from minium a red colour, we must believe that in this popular passion for red, we see the action of popular as against sophisticated culture. It is well known that the precious cinnabar was brought from Persia and was long the privilege of royalty and its general use only spread with the close of the Middle Ages.

Before then had come in various sorts of brownish red, By the shades of red one can judge of from a Deisis , beginning of the the age of an icon; significant in early icon-painting is the appearance of dark maroon or dark 15th century. We no longer find pure dark blue in ancient Russian icons after the fourteenth National Museum, Lviv, Ukraine.

In Greek icons, dark blue is used before the end of the fourteenth century; in Leonardo da Vinci, Saint Jerome, Russia it only appears in the sixteenth. It is noticeable that the very word is a corruption of the Greek term used by the Byzantines for the green of grass and the juice obtained from leeks, which has a green colour with a soft brown shade.

This green colour has no body in it; it is liquid and transparent and combines very well with brown it corresponds to terra verde. It is this colour which has most part in the highlights of draperies and in reflexes complementary to brick and chestnut browns. Also, cakes of this colour were sold and these were just the same as terra verde di Verona. The appearance of this tone, contemporaneously with the colour brought into use by Paolo Veronese, but independent of him, raises the decorative effects of icon-painting.

The original technique of etching bronze and plating it with gold or silver was applied in Constantinople especially to doors and we have examples at S. The imitation goes back as far as the Vatican manuscript of the Aeneid, where we find gold hatching on the folds of drapery to bring out the highlights; the same occurs in Byzantine work and is particularly beloved at Siena by Duccio 60 and his followers and at Venice in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Along the surface of folds in drapery, the edges of rocks, trees, buildings, and in general any places which require strong highlights and so can be brought out with glints of gold, the artist draws a fine brush dipped in a slow-drying gum, just as if he were painting with gold solution.

When he has gone over all the lines he applies gold leaf to the whole icon, or the necessary parts, gently rubs it over and leaves it to dry; later, a downy goose feather is used to rub off the gold leaf from where there was no gum and the gold remains as it were inlaid in long fine lines giving light to parts of the picture. This is done after the picture is finished and makes the gold redder, like a sovereign. Pale silvery gold is the mark of the early Russo-Byzantine icons. A curious peculiarity of icon-painting is the lighting of figures and scenes, which tend to be conventional, and faithful to an established scheme.

Figures en face are lit from in front, not from above exactly, but slanting from one side; this throws enough shadow to bring out the modelling of the face and show up the lines which mark character. A top light is considered the best for pictures, but it is not exactly flattering for faces as it throws a sudden dark Saint John the Baptist, shadow in the orbits of the eyes and below the nose and lips, and gives a hard line under the chin; middle of the 14th century. The slanting light is similar to what we have indoors; it gives an impression of rest wood, So likewise to accord with the convention, if Saint John the Baptist, We may remark as a matter of history that older icons observe this rule more strictly than later ones, particularly those of the seventeenth century when the traditions begin to be forgotten and the colours may be put on without meaning.

We can be pretty sure that there was a meaning in the minds of the Greek painters who developed the compositions and that it was lost among their successors. As a matter of fact, if we take it Anastasis, 14th century. Moreover, Istanbul. But afterwards, pale-gold, almost electrum, was seen to be the most decorative background on which figures could stand out. This background is characteristic of the Russo-Byzantine icons of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and again for the first half of the sixteenth century, as one may see in the icon galleries of the State Russian Museum.

In place of the gold, ground common icons allow of an ochre or light yellow ground. Especially conspicuous is the red ground for the Deesis and Festivals, characteristic of the fourteenth century, in Russian, Greek, and Balkan icons alike: this has a purely decorative intention and takes the place of the ancient purple.

Much later comes in the sky blue or light turquoise ground, both under Italian influence at the end of the sixteenth century. There is just one icon that may be referred to the twelfth century, a Dormition of the B. Sophia, are of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The small number of truly ancient sanctities that survive in the Kiev region is proved by the reverence paid to the Virgin of the Vydubitski monastery below the Lavra, which is nothing more than a little bronze folding cross with a figure of the Virgin, mounted in a large gilt frame.

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It soon fell to the level of a mere provincial school in every sense of the word, losing guidance before it had succeeded in Saint Boris and Saint Gleb, developing itself and, throughout the fourteenth century, continued the reproduction of bad 12th century. History and and clumsy models. If it had some early success in fresco it was due to the invitation given Architecture Museum, to Greek craftsmen, whose coming at the end of the fourteenth century brought about the Novgorod, Russia. We can count a dozen great churches built and decorated in this region between and however, with the invasion of , this luxuriant activity was frozen and died.

Churches and monasteries, palaces and towns were plundered and burnt and the craftsmen fled to the far north or to the nearer west; Volhynia and Galicia. These provinces were in close cultural connexion with Kiev, central Russia, and the middle Volga as far as Great Bolgary. Prince Vladimir d. The composition follows the pious eastern custom; instead of the donor putting his own portrait up in a church as was done in the west and also in S. Sophia at Kiev he preferred to set up, in the central space of the church or among the fixed icons in the iconostas, the figure of the Virgin turned to her left, interceding for men before Christ.

The icon has recently been cleaned66, but even previously we could distinguish the severe Byzantine painting of the face in dark ochre, the typical treatment of the eyes, nose, and lips. Its measurements are against its coming from Byzantium; most likely it was painted on the spot. Maria Maggiore at Rome: her mantle is of a chocolate colour, which comes from the Grecian East; but most important for us is the remarkably severe though rather dry manner of drawing which recalls the work of Greece proper Saint Boris and Saint Gleb On a level with this venerated icon we must now set the precious icon of Ss.

Boris and Gleb and Scenes from their Lives, the State Russian Museum , laid open to investigation by skilful cleaning It seems that we may c. From the Antony, Bishop of Novgorod, who journeved to Constantinople about , saw upon the walls church of Ss. Boris and Gleb of S. Close to the high altar, on the right near the place where the emperors were in Kolomna. The State crowned on their accession and where, according to tradition, the Virgin had herself prayed to Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

But of course the original of this icon was Russian and we know of the setting up of icons of the two saints in the church where their relics were laid and of the building of several churches dedicated to them as early as the twelfth century. Still, our icon is so thoroughly marked by the full severity of the Byzantine manner that we must believe either that its maker was instructed in this school, or that even a Russian icon could be consummately recast in Constantinople and that from this model is derived the icon in the State Russian Museum. The most interesting thing about the icon is that it is clearly a real portrait of the Russian princes: their individuality strikes one immediately.

The faces are of a Georgian or eastern Greek type, and according to some chronicles Boris and Gleb were sons of Vladimir by Anna, the daughter of Romanus II who traced his descent from the Armenian Arsacidae, or else by a Bulgarian wife. The slenderness of the waists is purposely exaggerated; it was a fashion throughout Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, no doubt brought in by the Orientals in the ninth and tenth centuries and kept up by the familiarity with the east due to the Crusades.

The princes wear the usual caps, edged with sable and made of green and red silk counter changed and embroidered with stars and edged with rows of pearls along the seams. Such caps, clearly of Oriental origin, were in use in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, not only in Russia, but in the Slavonic countries of central Europe; we find them, for instance, on the frescoes of S. Boleslav in Bohemia.

The hilts and sheaths of their swords are of the ceremonial pattern: in their The Annunciation, first half of hands they bear the cross of martyrdom. Special importance attaches to the eagles and griffins the 14th century. They may be closely paralleled by the clothes of the Emperor in the frescoes plaster on wood, 55 x 43 cm. The State Tretyakov of a carpet adorned after the Eastern fashion with a garden paradise or hunting scene Gallery, Moscow.

Here we The Transfiguration, 12th century. Thomas, likewise painted after the Byzantine manner, gives St. But Russian icon-painting did not long remain at this level. We see this in the icon of S. Demetrius of Thessalonica which hangs alongside the former in the State Russian Museum. It is, likewise, painted upon a pale gold ground; below is a strip of herbage. The saint wears a red cloak, from the earliest times the mark of noble warriors among the saints such as S. Above the mail is a belt supporting a bowcase and quiver. According to the Greek legends the saint was the protector of Thessalonica against the Slavs and so he is unsheathing his sword.

This icon came from the cathedral iconostas out of the Deesis tier, also called the tier of the Fathers of the Church. It is distinguished by the narrowness of the panel on which it is painted; the figure is stiff and the drawing marred by an exaggerated attempt to make it a close portrait of the great patriarch The icon called by this name shows Mary Our Lady Hodegetria, end of standing with her hands raised orans while the Child is represented conventionally in a circular the 13th century.

Egg tempera medallion or shield over her breast. There can be no doubt that to the twelfth century belongs the remarkable icon of Ss. The icon has great Our Lady of Pimen, second importance in the history of Byzantine iconography because it represents the chief of the half of the 14th century. Apostles in conversation.

This particular subject almost went out faded from use after early Egg tempera on plaster on Christian times and did not return to popularity until the twelfth century, both in Byzance and canvas on wood, 67 x 48 cm. Sicily, where the life of the two Apostles was represented in mosaic e. We must suppose that icons of the type appeared in Byzance in the twelfth century, Moscow. If we mention the full-length icon of S. George in S. The Archangel Gabriel large Annunciation in S.

There are a few such of the thirteenth century. Most instructive historically is an icon of S. The State Russian Museum, George that has been cleaned Its antiquity is proved by the style of painting and St. In this icon we have not a portrait of the great martyr, but a representation of his achievement, the slaying of the dragon. The tale of this wondrous feat took shape as early as the seventh century, but the earliest representations of it belong to the eleventh. In Byzance they knew the picture of S. George on horseback and his combat with the dragon, but the subject gained wide popularity after the Crusades.

Our icon is all painted by one artist, but he had more than one model. The scenes copied from miniatures of a manuscript are, like their originals, painted upon a white ground; they are in the early Greco-Slavonic manner and have not lost sight of the Greek original, but they are necessarily on a much larger scale. In the history of painting, this century confronts us with a singular variety of manners; this variety is greatest where stray models from outside offered themselves for reproduction and imitation.

The most curious point is that the different styles answer to the iconographic character of the subjects; in each case some imported model determined the style. The icon, being painted upon a round panel, was probably a banner. It may be assigned to the thirteenth or early fourteenth century. Copies of it are in various churches and in the State Russian Museum; all have the dark flesh colour, and, unlike the Byzantine manner, have a leaning towards ordinary painting in their colouring and in the light planes being put in with broad patches of dark red.

The face still preserves some Greek features, but the expression is comparatively kind, not rigidly ascetic, and the lines have something of the Russian about them. In quite another, rather primitive, popular style is a pair of very early Royal Doors. In these, The Virgin with Child, 14th the Greek design has been reduced to the barest possible scheme; the dominant colours are red century.

National Museum of and green, and these in pale diluted tones: this, in a sense, takes the scenes out of reality into a Ohrid, Macedonia. However, the reason was not that the craftsmen sought to express some significant symbolism, such as is invented for them in the interpretations of modern aesthetes, The Virgin Mary, Cretan but was because they were not capable of anything else. School, end of the 15th Examples of such manners often stand isolated or only by chance contributed to the stream century. Private Collection. Our Lady Eleusa Our Lady of was correlated.

The most evident case of such a type is that of The Virgin. A new representation Tenderness enframed by the of the Virgin became, in the fourteenth century, the preoccupation of the whole Christian world, Church Feast Days, 12th to west and east alike. In Italy, there was a definite departure from the Byzantine type and in this 13th century. Siver, wood, they were followed by the whole Balkan peninsula and Mount Athos. An early example of the embossing, chasing and new tendency is a remarkable icon of The Virgin in the collection of S.

Ryabushinski at Moscow, gilding, The new features Art Museum of Georgia, are the dark brown ground, the light flesh colour, and more especially the youthful face; in Tbilisi, Georgia. Around the frame is a prayer translated closely from Late Greek prayers, a clear indication of its Greek model. The treatment of the faces shows an unaccustomed hand carefully exaggerating the Byzantine lines round the eyes and the features of the Child.

Bogachev, Afield duet with P. Bogachev , Nut Brown Girl duet with P. Bochachev , Distant Northern Town trio with S. Buzurov and P. Bogachev , Dixie duet with P. Bogachev , Greetings from the Troops duet with P. Bogachev, unknown duet with V.

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Gavva , Our Army duet with P. Bogachev With the Alexandrov Ensemble he recorded Troika trad; arr. Dmitri Oleg Yachinov , [88] Gandzia trad; arr. Dmitri Oleg Yachinov [89]. In he graduated from the Kharkiv Institute of Arts. From he was soloist at the Kharkiv Opera and Ballet. Isakovsky , My Moscow music: I. Dunaevsky; lyrics: S. Agranyan, M. Lisyansky , Ogonek lyrics: M. Isakovsky , It is time to Take the Road music: V. Solovev-Sedoy; lyrics: S. Fogelson , Farewell, Rocky Mountains music: E. Zharkovsky; lyrics: A.

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Bukin , Troika and Granada. In the s and s he recorded with the Alexandrov Ensemble : unknown duet with N. Nikitin, Mary [90] Golumet, Irkutsk Oblast — Moscow 19 September Known as Lenya Kharitonov. When his father went missing in World War II, his mother brought him up.

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At the age of 14yrs he studied locally to be a welder, and began to perform as a singer. At 17 years old he started auditioning at Irkutsk Philharmonic, then at Moscow Philharmonic , and finally was accepted by Moscow Conservatory. This was very difficult because as a Siberian he did not have even a matriculation certificate, but his strong singing voice spoke for him. For nearly 20 years he was a member of the Red Song and Dance Ensemble of the Soviet army later the Alexandrov Ensemble : in the choir from to , and a soloist from to He subsequently became a soloist with the Moscow Philharmonic.

He performed successfully in most concert halls in Russia: On tour he visited the entire country, including the Kremlin Palace concert hall. He was the pride of Russia, sang at concerts for the Government and for foreign delegations. After that he went on tour abroad a great deal. Andronov , Here Lenin Lived music: B. Terentiev; lyrics: A. Feltsman; lyrics: Oshanin L. Belinsky , Song of Peace music: B. Muradeli; lyrics: V. Kharitonov , Sedina music: A. Ekimyan; lyrics: F. Laube , Son of the Fatherland music: S. Lazarev , The Song of Russia music: St.

Mali, Poltava , Ukraine ; d. He made his debut at the Kharkiv Opera Theatre. From to he was a member of the Bolshoi Theatre. He was professor at Gnessin State Musical College to , continuing over the age of In Russia has been considered the best tenor in the first half of the 20th century. From the s he recorded opera. Belyaev music: F. Belyaev music: V. Belyaev , Marching song duet with I. Shvedov []. See images here , here and here. He moved to Moscow aged 3yrs, after his father, a Soviet official, died. There he worked in an aircraft factory as a fitter-assembler before attending Gnessin State Musical College as a singer instructed by A.

After graduation he took part in a Puccini opera at Moscow Conservatory , did a tour singing across the country from Transdniestria to Sakhalinthen, then joined the Ensemble in On behalf of the Ensemble, he travelled the country performing solos with a sextet of musicians from the orchestra, and entertaining troops where they were in service. Levashov; lyrics: B. Terentiev; lyrics: V. Kharitonov , Hot Snow music: A. Pakhmutova; lyrics: M. Lvov , Victory Day music: D. Tuhmanov; lyrics: V. Kharitonov , Conductors of War music: B. Figotin; lyrics F.

Kukushkin; lyrics: B. Zishenkova , Paratroopers' Song music: M. Minkov; lyrics: I. Shaferan , Letter From the Depths music: B. Reytman , Under the Balkan Stars music: M. Isakovsky , Before it is Too Late music: A. Pakhmutova; lyrics: N. Dubrovin , Fifth Ocean music: W. Korostelev; lyrics: B. Bezhaev , Home Country music: G. Movsesyan; lyrics: B. Gin , Forties music: I. Katayev; lyrics: D.

Samoylov , Tulskaya Defence music: Novikov ; lyrics: V. Guryan , The Shield and Sword P. Ovsiannikov — S. Leningrad 22 October Fine tenor soloist. People's Artist of Russia , winner of competitions named after Glinka and Tchaikovsky. In he graduated from the Gorky Aviation Technical School and was sent to the factory. In was accepted into the Moscow Conservatory where he studied for three years. From he did military service and sang in the Alexandrov Ensemble , then from to he was soloist for the Moscow State Academic Philharmonic Society.

In he graduated from Gnessin State Musical College. He sang a wide repertoire besides opera, and performed in more than 30 countries. He has performed on the radio, and recorded on vinyl and CDs. Fatyanov, S. Dmitri Oleg Yachinov [] []. Moscow 4 March He graduated from Gnessin State Musical College in with a diploma for violin. In he graduated with honours from the Moscow Conservatory as a singer.

Since he has recorded for television in the USSR and Russia, totalling many hours of music: opera, operetta, oratorio, cantata, duets, romances and songs of composers of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, folk songs, recordings of symphonic, chamber, folk, and pop music, and with instrumental ensembles. He was a member of the international jury of the Dmitry Shostakovich contest at Hanover , Germany, in He is involved with the Shubertovskogo music company in Moscow. He has recorded Song of the Space Gulls music: C. Kondyrev []. Fatyanov , The Roads music: A.

Novikov ; lyrics: L. Ochanine; arr. In most of his recordings he uses a light voice suitable for radio or film, but in some, such as Boat , Mihailov exhibits the kind of powerful tenor, favoured by the Alexandrov Ensemble , to be heard above the choir and orchestra. He returned to the Ensemble choir in , by his own choice, and remained with the Ensemble until at least Geviksman; lyrics: G.

Fere , In the Dugouts music: K. Fatyanov , Let Lit [] music: M. Tabachnikov; lyrics: I. Frenkel , Katyusha music: M.

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Isakovsky , My Favourite music: M. Blanter; lyrics: E. Dolmatovskaya , Parade of Victory music: V. Pleshakov; lyrics: B. Shainsky, M. Jordan; lyrics: M. Lisyansky , Song of the Young Soldiers music: P. Gerasimov Katz; lyrics: A. Oshanin , In a good hour! Zharov , Goodbye, Mom music: V. Hills , As for the Kama, the River music: V. Budashkin; lyrics: A. Fidrovsky , Swallow-Kasatochka music: E. Zharkovsky; lyrics: O. Vasiliev , Sailor's Waltz music: V.

Sorokin; lyrics: S. Judge; lyrics S. Bolotin , Night Music: L. Utesov; lyrics: I. Fradkin , Eternal Glory to our Hero duet with B. Bass soloist at the Mariinsky Theatre and Bolshoi Theatre. Dmitri Oleg Yachinov. His mother was an actress; he attended drama school, and became an actor attached to a Moscow theatre. However he still had a passion for music and studied at Gnessin State Musical College. He joined the Alexandrov Ensemble in Fradkin; lyrics: C. Islands , Cranes music: J. Frenkel; Lyrics: R. Gamzatov , Solidarity March music: S. Sofronov , A Peaceful Country music: A.

Averkin; lyrics: A. Averkin; lyrics: P. Gradov ca. Gradov , Song of the Faraway Homeland music: M. Tariverdiyev; lyrics: Robert Rozhdestvensky , Victory music: V. Shainsky; lyrics: L. Oshanin , Regimental Band duet with Vadim V. Shkaptsov music: L. Lyadov; lyrics: G. Hodos , Do you Hear me, Paris music: A. Ostrovsky; lyrics: L. Oshanin , Soldiers Pribautki duet with E. Belyaev music: A. Doluhanyan; lyrics: G. Solovev-Sedoy; lyrics: M. Bukreev, The Russians Want War? Bukreev and E. Belyaev , Bandura both as solo and as duet with V.

See also: Russian Wikipedia article about A. Sergeev See a typical, jolly image. Born 24 January in Gerasimovka in the Tambov region of Russia. Graduated from Gnessin State Musical College. From to he was bass singer with the Alexandrov Ensemble ; promoted to soloist Performed in recitals from Kravchuk ? Dolmatovskaya , Duma of the Motherland music: S. Malkov , Stars Lovely Homeland music: I. Dunaevsky; lyrics: M. Matusovsky ? Belyaev music: D. Kabalevsky; lyrics: V. Andronov , Third Battalion music: B.

Mokrousov ; lyrics: A. Feltsman; lyrics: V. Sheets; lyrics: V. Guryan , Song of the Volga Boatmen music: M. Matusovsky , Rodina music: S. Churkin , Eternal Glory duet with O. Shkaptsov, Spring duet with I. Bukreev, Hawks. Hodos , Sailors March duet with B. Shemyakov, Song of the March-Past duet with A.

Sibirtsev, Hail to the Infantry! Also spelled Chtefoutsa. From a farming family in Ukraine. With the Alexandrov Ensemble he was at first in the choir, then as a soloist from he recorded You are One of Us music: A. Lisyansky , Moscow music: D. Tuhmanov; lyrics: B. Dubrovin , Kalinka [] [] and Korobeiniki [] both trad. He won a prize in the Polish song festival of Studied at Gnessin State Musical College. From he was a soloist of the Opera and Ballet Theatre in Gorky.

In he spent a year [] as a soloist of the Alexandrov Ensemble , then became soloist of Perm and Samara Opera. Gres, unknown song duet with N. Gres, Song of the March-Past with N. Bukreev Italian partisan song; arr. Pogrebov [] []. Guest soloist. He began his career in Donetsk , where there is now a monument in his memory. Ivan Stolyar born in Kostroma , 16 September ; died 25 December Graduated from the A. Schnittke Moscow State Institute of Music in He was a soloist of the Tver Philharmonic from to , then joined the Ensemble in As of he sings for the Ensemble as a guest soloist. Died in the 25 December plane crash.

Yerevan Renowned Armenian bass soloist. With the Alexandrov Ensemble in ca. Moscow ; d. As a soldier he fought bravely when an armoured personnel carrier was hit; for this he was awarded the Order of the Red Star. In the late s he became a soloist of All-Union Radio, and in the early s began to record duets with Victor Selivanov.

Terentiev; lyrics: S. From to he was a soloist with the Alexandrov Ensemble ; however in there was apparently a bar-room brawl which embarrassed the Soviet government, and finished his career. Lev Leshchenko born : a soloist with the Ensemble from Valery Gavva. Vasily Ivanovich Shtefutsa. Edward Maxovich Labkovsky. Ivanov Honoured Artist of Russia. Bogachev Honoured Artist of Russia. Maystruk Honoured Artist of Russia A. Gvozdetsky Honoured Artist of Russia B. Mizyuk Honoured Artist of Russia [] [] See image here.

Ensign Victor Sanin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Evgeny Belyaev. Main article: Vladimir Bunchikov. Main article: Artur Eisen. Main article: Leonid Kharitonov singer. Main article: Victor Ivanovich Nikitin. Main article: Mark Reizen. Main article: Anatoliy Solovianenko.

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Main article: Georgi Pavlovich Vinogradov. Biography of Georgi Abramov. Retrieved 29 December Echo of Moscow. Retrieved 25 December Retrieved 20 January Retrieved 1 October